The New SMBGhost Wormable Vulnerability is Gaining Popularity in The Dark Web

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On March 10, 2020, details about a zero-day vulnerability (CVE-2020-0796) affecting the Microsoft Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, were accidentally exposed by security companies. SMB is a network communication protocol responsible for granting shared access to files, printers and serial ports between the different devices on the network.

In this blog post we reveal some of the activities we identified in the dark web and explain why this specific vulnerability has the potential to become a “wormable” attack that can spread fast.

The CVE-2020-0796 vulnerability, which received the moniker SMBGhost, is a buffer overflow vulnerability that exists due to an error in the way the vulnerable protocol handles a maliciously crafted compressed data packet. It could be exploited by a remote, unauthenticated attacker to execute arbitrary code and gain control over vulnerable systems.

In addition, researchers noted the vulnerability could be exploited in a “wormable” attack, in which an attacker could easily and quickly move from one victim on the network to another. In this aspect, this vulnerability resembles the “wormable” CVE-2017-0144 vulnerability, which also affected an earlier version of the SMB protocol (SMBv1) and was exploited during the massive WannaCry and NotPetya ransomware outbreaks in 2017, using the EternalBlue exploit allegedly developed by the NSA and leaked by the Shadow Brokers hacking group in April 2017.

Will the SMBGhost vulnerability lead to cyber-attacks in the magnitude of WannaCry and NotPetya? We don’t know yet. What we do know is that the world is currently in a very different and much more vulnerable place, with the Coronavirus outbreak sending millions of employees to work remotely, in a much less secure environment. The balance between risk and security has shifted.

Time To Patch SMBGhost

As the vulnerability only affects SMBv3, which is the latest version of the SMB protocol that exists only in recent versions of the Windows operation system, only Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019 versions of the OS are vulnerable, and specifically the following builds of both OS versions: 1903 and 1909.

The vulnerability was patched by Microsoft shortly after its publication, with the release of a security update on March 12, 2020.

Users are urged to install the relevant security update issued by Microsoft. However, if installing the patch is currently not possible, the company advises to disable SMBv3 compression using the following PowerShell command:

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PowerShell Command

Unfortunately, prioritizing patching is always a challenge. Considering the fact that most IT departments in any organization nowadays, are currently occupied by ensuring employees are able to work remotely, in order to maintain business continuity, it is possible that patching will not be a first priority.

Discovered PoC Exploits

Since the vulnerability was made public, various repositories connected to the vulnerability have been created on GitHub. Many of these contain scanner scripts for detecting vulnerable systems.

In addition, several repositories containing PoC exploits for the vulnerability were also identified. One such repository contains a PoC written in Python that supports SMBv3.1.1. This PoC targets Windows 10 systems running the 1903/1909 build.

According to our analysis, this PoC triggers a buffer overflow and crashes the kernel, but could be modified into a remote code execution exploit. We identified additional similar PoC exploits on GitHub, all of which would eventually cause the targeted system to crash. However, none of the exploits we observed allow remote code execution.

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Description of the PoC

Dark Web Discussions

Right after details of the SMBGhost vulnerability were published, discussions about the vulnerability emerged on different Dark Web platforms, where the vulnerability is also dubbed CoronaBlue (possibly a paraphrase on the EternalBlue exploit and the current Coronavirus pandemic outbreak). At first, we mainly observed the sharing of publicly available reports about the vulnerability.

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News Reports about the SMBGhost Vulnerability Shared on a Russian Dark Web Forum (Source: Verint LUMINAR)

However, threat actors soon started expressing their interest in a working PoC. For instance, on March 11, 2020, a member of a hacking-related Discord channel asked how many GitHub repositories containing fake exploit codes for CVE-2020-0796 exist (since it is not uncommon to find fake repositories allegedly containing exploit codes circulating on the Web after a new zero-day vulnerability is revealed). One of the replies he got was that it “would be good” to have a working PoC, and another member shared a link to a scanning tool for tracking vulnerable systems, which is publicly available on GitHub. That same scanner was also shared on a Russian forum, and an additional scanner on GitHub was shared in a Persian Telegram channel. Furthermore, our researchers have found multiple discussions in different underground forums, where users are trying to find exploit kits for the CVE-2020-0796 SMBv3 vulnerability.

Our research team will continue to monitor the new SMBGhost vulnerability and the threat actors that express interest in the vulnerability and in obtaining a working PoC exploit for it. As several PoC exploit codes have been made available on GitHub, it is possible we will soon witness exploitation attempts. Although none of the currently available PoC codes could allow the attacker to remotely execute arbitrary code on targeted systems, these exploits could be modified to enable remote code execution, and potentially constitute a more serious threat. Furthermore, the fact this vulnerability could be leveraged in a “wormable” attack, stresses the importance and the urgency of applying the relevant patch.

Hackers Continue to Exploit the COVID-19 Pandemic in Malicious Campaigns

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As the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread throughout the world, a growing number of malicious campaigns were identified, attempting to exploit the constant search for information and updates on the virus, in order to spread various types of malware.

In this blog post we share our analysis of one of the major Coronavirus related malicious campaigns and provide an overview of other campaigns. In addition, for your convenience, you will find at the end of the post a list of IoCs to implement in your security systems.

The COVID-19 Interactive Map – The Malicious Version

Security researchers have identified Russian cybercriminals selling malicious versions of the highly popular interactive map of COVID-19 cases around the world, created by Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. In fact, these versions include infostealer malware, intended on stealing information from its victims’ computers.

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John Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center

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Sales Offer of Malicious Map in Russian Dark Web Forum
Source: Verint LUMINAR

In addition, a new malicious domain was discovered, coronavirusapp[.]site, which is offering to download an Android app that tracks the spread of the virus and also includes statistical data. However, the application is actually poisoned with CovidLock, a ransomware that changes the password used to unlock the device, thus denying the victims access to their phones. The victims are required to pay a ransom fee of US$100 in Bitcoin, or else, according to the ransom note, their contacts, pictures, videos and device’s memory will all be erased.

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The Coronavirusapp[.]site domain.
Source: Domain Tools

Attack Methods

Security researchers have also discovered a new backdoor distributed in RAR format. The file includes an executable masquerading as a Microsoft Word file with information on COVID-19, intended to install the rest of the malware on the victim’s computer. The researchers estimate that file is being distributed via phishing emails.

A new ransomware called CoronaVirus was recently identified while being distributed through a fake website of WiseCleaner, a service offering system utilities for Windows OS. Download files on this malicious site act as downloaders for both the CoronaVirus ransomware and a stealer called Kpot. Additional campaigns utilize phishing emails with malicious attachments that supposedly include information and updates on Coronavirus, but in fact download different malware to the victims’ computers, including a banking Trojan called TrickBot, a Stealer called LokiBot and a Stealer called FormBook.

State-Sponsored Threat Actors Are Also Involved

Security researchers have also identified state-sponsored threat actors exploiting the COVID-19 panic to promote their interests and carry out attack campaigns.

  • In early March 2020, researchers discovered a campaign launched by a Chinese APT group against targets in Vietnam.
  • Another Chinese APT group attacked targets in Mongolia’s government using malicious documents that supposedly contain new information on the virus.
  • An APT group originating from North Korea has sent phishing messages to South Korean officials that ostensibly included a document detailing the reaction of the country to the pandemic.
  • Russian APT Group had sent malicious files, seemingly including updates on Coronavirus, in order to distribute a backdoor malware to targets in Ukraine.

We see that cybercriminals and state-sponsored threat actors are using the panic resulting from the Coronavirus pandemic, for phishing purposes and malware distribution. As the virus continues to spread across the world, preoccupying the global agenda, it can be estimated we will witness more campaigns exploiting the crisis.

To read the detailed analysis click here

For a list of IOCs click here

Suspicious Domains Selling Tickets to the Tokyo 2020 Olympics

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As a cloud of uncertainty still hangs over the opening of the Tokyo 2020 Olympics due to the Coronavirus pandemic, cyber criminals are still working (remotely) on finding ways to maliciously profit from the event.

Events at the center of global attention such as major sports events and tournaments are often used by attackers to trick users into phishing scams, malware campaigns and the theft of personal and payment details.

We have been monitoring potential threats to the upcoming Tokyo 2020 Olympics for our customers and we recently discovered two suspicious domains allegedly selling tickets for the Games. In both cases, further investigation led us to find additional suspicious domains allegedly selling tickets to the Euro 2020 tournament. In this blog post you can find a summary of our findings.

tickets-tokyo2020[.]com

The domain tickets-tokyo2020[.]com was created on February 11, 2020 by a private registrant at the NICENIC INTERNATIONAL GROUP domain registrar.

When accessing the domain, the user is presented with a page in Russian where the official logo of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics appears. It is also stated that this website is an “authorized Ticket Reseller” for the Olympics. However, we could not find this domain in the list of authorized resellers on the official website of the 2020 Olympics. The user can change the language of the website to English and the website contains search fields, where the user can search for a specific event in the Olympics, for which they are looking to purchase tickets. At the time of publishing this post, the search option does not appear to function, thus, it is possible the website is still under development. There is also a “cart” banner where the user is supposed to be able to view the selected tickets and pay for them.

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tickets-tokyo2020[.]com

This domain is hosted on the 5.45.72[.]40 IP address, together with only two more domains: ticket-mafia[.]com and euro-2020-tickets[.]com. The ticket-mafia[.]com domain was created on November 2016, and until December 20, 2019, it was registered by a private registrant at the GoDaddy domain registrar. However, on December 20, 2019, its registry was updated by a private registrant and was registered at the same domain registrar as the tickets-tokyo2020[.]com domain, NICENIC INTERNATIONAL GROUP.

The ticket-mafia[.]com domain displays a login page in Russian. It is worth mentioning that when inserting HTTPS:// before the tickets-tokyo2020[.]com domain, we were presented with the same login page of ticket-mafia[.]com. There is no option to sign up and therefore we believe it is designed for a user with preset login credentials, presumably the admin of the websites. We estimate the login page leads to a backend dashboard of some kind, although it remains unknown whether it is used for legitimate purposes or not.

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Login Window

The euro-2020-tickets[.]com domain was created on January 6, 2020, by a private registrant and is also registered at the NICENIC INTERNATIONAL GROUP domain registrar. This website resembles the tickets-tokyo2020[.]com: it is also presented in Russian and uses the official UEFA Euro 2020 logo, it enables the user to switch the language to English and it allows users to search for a specific match. However, in this case, the search function does work. Upon selecting a match and a seat, the user can select the “order” function and enter his name, phone number and email address and move on to the payment, yet the “Go to the payment” button does not work, as of the time of publishing this post. Of note, the official UEFA Euro 2020 website specifically states that “Third-party ticketing websites and secondary ticketing platforms are not authorized to sell tickets for UEFA EURO 2020”. Thus, it appears this website is not an official Euro 2020 tickets reseller and is not authorized to offer tickets for the tournament for sale.

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euro-2020-tickets[.]com

In light of these findings, we estimate that the above domains were created by the same actor. Our investigation did not reveal any malicious activity associated with these domains. However, it appears that these are not official resellers of tickets for the two events. In addition, as the search function in the Tokyo 2020 domain and the payment function in the Euro 2020 domain do not work, it appears that these domains are still under development, and thus could materialize into a more serious threat in the future.

olympic2020tickets[.]com

The code of a malicious HTML file recently uploaded to the VirusTotal platform, contained a link to the olympic2020tickets[.]com domain. This domain does not appear in the official website of the Tokyo 2020 Olympics as an official and authorized reseller. The website offers users to buy or sell tickets to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. The website also displays the logos of some of the Olympics’ official sponsors, such as Toyota, Panasonic, Visa, Alibaba Group, and more. The use of the logos of the sponsors can increase the credibility of the website in the eyes of visitors, and trick them into thinking the website is a legitimate and official ticket reseller for the Games.

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olympic2020tickets[.]com

Using an HTML interpreter, we discovered that the above-mentioned malicious file uploaded to VirusTotal, contains the HTML code of the main page of olympic2020tickets[.]com. In addition, the olympic2020tickets[.]com domain itself is identified as malicious by three different anti-virus engines. Our technical analysis of the website’s code did not reveal any use of a malicious JavaScript. The website provides the following phone number for contact: +4402074425560. We identified two additional similar domains, eurosportstickets[.]com and ticketsmarketplace.co[.]uk, which provide the same phone number for contact, and are also dedicated to selling tickets to various sports events and games. As can be seen in the screenshots below, the three domains resemble each other in their structure and design. In addition, eurosportstickets[.]com is identified as a phishing website by two anti-virus engines.

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eurosportstickets[.]com

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ticketsmarketplace[.]co.uk

None of the Whois details of the three domains, reveal the identity of the registrant. However, we noticed that two of the domains, olympic2020tickets[.]com and ticketsmarketplace[.]co.uk, are hosted on the same IP address, 77.72.1.20, while eurosportstickets[.]com is hosted on the approximate 77.72.1.21 IP address.

Using the graph function of VirusTotal, we managed to establish connections between the three domains and the IP addresses they are hosted on, as can be seen below. The graph also shows how this infrastructure is related to malicious activity, and how both IP addresses are used for downloading malware, such as the Tofsee backdoor, the Artemis malware or the QRat.

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Connections Between the Domains and Their Surrounding Malicious Infrastructure

 

Political Tension in Spain Leads to Cyber-Attacks against Spanish Websites

The political tension after the Catalonia referendum on October 1, 2017, has influenced the virtual arena as well, resulting in cyber-attacks against Spanish websites carried out by hacktivists leaking information about high profile targets and claiming responsibility for shutting down websites. These threat actors use various anti-Spain hashtags that indicate the different cyber campaigns: #OpEspana, #OpCatalonia, #OpCatalonya and #OpSaveCatalonia. Continue reading “Political Tension in Spain Leads to Cyber-Attacks against Spanish Websites”

#OpIcarus Cyber Campaign – Round 5

Hacktivists recently launched the fifth phase of the #OpIcarus cyber campaign (also dubbed #OpSacred) against the financial sector around the world. This campaign was first launched in February 2016, and as in previous phases, the official target list contains mainly websites of central banks around the world. In addition, the initiators share links to download known DDoS tools, such as Continue reading “#OpIcarus Cyber Campaign – Round 5”

Updates about the Upcoming #OpIsrael Campaign

The number of participants in the event pages of the #OpIsrael campaign, as of the first week of April 2017, is approximately 600 Facebook users – a very low number of supporters compared to the same period in previous campaigns. In general, the response on social networks to the #OpIsrael campaign over the years since 2013 is constantly declining. Continue reading “Updates about the Upcoming #OpIsrael Campaign”

Initial Preparations for #OpIsrael 2017

During the past week, we detected indications for initial preparations for the upcoming #OpIsrael campaign scheduled for April 7, 2017. SenseCy identified several event pages on Facebook that were opened explicitly to organize cyber-attacks. The number of participants in all the event pages that we found is relatively low (approximately 160 Facebook users). Continue reading “Initial Preparations for #OpIsrael 2017”

Jihadi Cybercrime (Increasing Interest in Spam and Phishing Methods on Closed Islamic State Platforms)

While monitoring closed platforms that propagate an Islamic State agenda, we detected an initial interest in hacking lessons, focusing on spam and phishing methods. Many discussions in the technical sections of closed platforms affiliated with the Islamic State deal with the implementation of Continue reading “Jihadi Cybercrime (Increasing Interest in Spam and Phishing Methods on Closed Islamic State Platforms)”

Anna-senpai – Analysis of the Threat Actor behind the Leak of Mirai

The Mirai IoT Botnet has made a lot of headlines in recent weeks. While the botnet itself was analyzed and discussed by a number of security researchers and companies, none addressed the threat actor behind the recent attacks and the leak of Mirai source code. Such an analysis can provide useful insights into Continue reading “Anna-senpai – Analysis of the Threat Actor behind the Leak of Mirai”