Anonymous Italia Robs the Police (Again)

On October 12, 2016, Anonymous Italia launched a cyber offensive against the Polizia Penitenziaria (the Italian penitentiary police) to protest against the “unjust” acquittal of all those involved in the trial of Stefano Cucchi’s, a young Italian citizen who died in 2009 under still unclear circumstances a week after being remanded in custody by the Italian police for alleged drug dealing. Continue reading “Anonymous Italia Robs the Police (Again)”

#OpSafePharma 3.0: Italian Hacktivists Attack the Healthcare Sector

The #OpSafePharma is a hacktivist campaign targeting the Italian healthcare and pharma industries, protesting their treatment of ADHD. Hacktivists affiliated with Anonymous Italia perform DDoS attacks and leak information stolen from databases of websites related to the abovementioned sectors. The campaign, which started in March 2016, was relaunched at the beginning of June following a decrease in the number of attacks against Italian targets in the past month.

On August 21, 2016, Anonymous Italia and its affiliated hacktivist collective AntiSec-Italia, relaunched the campaign, this time dubbed #OperationSafePharma, targeting four different healthcare-related Italian institutions with website defacement attacks and substantial data leakages. The outcomes of the operation, namely the screenshots of the defaced websites and the addresses of the downloadable data leakages, uploaded on dedicated file sharing platforms, were announced on the social media outlets of AntiSec-Italia, specifically on their Facebook page and Twitter account.

AntiSec-Italia published the outcomes of the operation on its Facebook page
AntiSec-Italia published the outcomes of the operation on its Facebook page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Data Leakage

The hacktivists leaked approximately 2.5 GB of data, stolen from the databases of two prominent Italian healthcare institutions, and provided links to file-sharing platforms where they uploaded the dumps.

We acquired the leaked databases and, upon verification, we assess that they mostly contain internal communications, as well as a great volume of personal data relating to the in-house personnel of the two healthcare institutions, mainly CVs of the physicians and administrative executives working in the facilities. We did not find any indications that medical records of patients treated in these healthcare facilities were disclosed or compromised during the data leakage. Notably, the most recent documents we detected within the stolen files are dated August 5, 2016.

A partial list of the folders included in one of the leaked databases.
A partial list of the folders included in one of the leaked databases.
Sample of leaked data, notably personal documents of a patient who applied to be treated by a different physician
Sample of leaked data, notably personal documents of a patient who applied to be treated by a different physician

Website Defacements

The group defaced four distinct websites, explaining in a public statement – recycled from previous operations – the rationale underpinning the protest.

Screenshots of the defacements related to two of the affected Italian medical facilities
Screenshots of the defacements related to two of the affected Italian medical facilities

Assessment

Our assessment is that this latest iteration of #OperationSafePharma originates more from a one-time opportunity window that the hacktivist group AntiSec-Italia spotted in vulnerable websites associated with Italian medical centers and hospitals, than a concerted effort by multiple Anonymous-affiliated collectives to launch a massive hacktivist campaign against the Italian healthcare sector as a whole. We base this assumption on the analysis conducted using our automated SMA (Social Media Analytics) toolset, which indicated a spike in the activity of the attackers.

Nonetheless, the achievements of the operation, in particular the exfiltration of sensitive databases belonging to prominent Italian healthcare institutions, display noteworthy technical capabilities by the initiators of the offensive.

As yet, we have not identified any preparations for future hacktivist campaigns against the Italian healthcare or financial sector, nonetheless we continue to monitor Italian hacktivist threat actors on a daily basis.

The Healthcare Sector is Targeted by Cybercriminals More than Ever

The healthcare sector has recently become a desirable target for cyber crooks. According to Symantec ISTR report statistics, healthcare was the most breached sub-sector in 2015, comprising almost 40% of all the attacks. Hospital security systems are generally less secure than those of financial organizations, as monetary theft has always been perceived as the greatest threat for organizations, and dangers to other sectors were usually underestimated. Moreover, awareness of cyber-attacks against hospitals and medical centers is much lower than it is to financial cybercrime, and as a result, the employees are less well-trained on how to avoid falling victim to a cyber-attack.

1
Top 10 Sub-Sectors Breached by Number of Incidents According to Symantec ISTR report

Only lately, this concept has started to be challenged, revealing the potential damage that can be caused by the theft and leakage of patient data. However, the ‘bad guys’ remain one step ahead and during the last few months, we have witnessed a spate of attacks targeting the healthcare industry: ransomware attacks encrypting essential data and demanding payment of a ransom, numerous data leakages revealing confidential patient data, unauthorized access to medical networks and even the hacking of medical devices, such as pumps and X-ray equipment.

Moreover, the healthcare sector is being targeted by hackers not only directly, but also via third-party companies in the supply chain, such as equipment and drug suppliers. These companies usually store some confidential data that originates in the hospitals’ databases and may even have access to the hospital IT systems, but they are far less secure than the hospitals themselves. Thus, they serve as a preferable infiltration point for malicious actors pursuing the theft of medical data and attempting to infiltrate the hospitals’ networks.

The consequences of attacks on the healthcare industry may be extensive, including the impairment of the medical center functioning, which may result in danger to human lives in the worst case scenario. In other cases, personal data will be stolen and sold on underground markets. Cybercriminals will take advantages of these personal details for identity theft or for future cyber-attacks combining social engineering based on the stolen details.

While monitoring closed Deep-Web and Darknet sources, SenseCy analysts recently noticed a growing interest toward the healthcare sector among cyber criminals. Databases of medical institutions are traded on illicit marketplaces and closed forums, along with access to their servers. In the last few months alone, we came across several occurrences indicating extensive trade of medical records and access to servers where this data is stored.

The first case, in May 2016, was the sale of RDP access for a large clinic group with several branches in the central U.S., which was offered for sale on a Darknet closed forum. For a payment of $50,000 Bitcoins, the buyer would receive access to the compromised workstation, with access to 3 GB of data stored on four hard disks. Additionally, the workstation allows access to an aggregate electronical system (EHR) for managing medical records, where data regarding patients, suppliers, payments and more can be exploited.

Although the seller did not mention the origin of the credentials he was selling, he claimed that local administrator privileges could be received on the compromised system. He also specified that 45 users from the medical personnel were logged into the system from the workstation he hacked.

The relatively high price for this offer indicates the high demand for medical information. With RDP access, the potential attackers can perform any action on the compromised workstation: install malware, encrypt the files or erase them, infect other machines in the network and access any data stored in the network. The consequences can be tremendous.

2
An excerpt of the sale thread posted on a Darknet forum

 

3
Screenshot allegedly taken on the hacked workstation

Just a few weeks later, in June 2016, our analysts detected another cyber-accident related to healthcare. This time, three databases allegedly stolen via an RDP access to a medical organization were offered for sale for more than $500,000 on a dedicated Darknet marketplace. In one of his posts, the seller claimed that one of the databases belongs to a large American health insurer.

4
One of the sales posts on a Darknet marketplace
5
Screenshot posted by the seller as a proof of hacking into a medical organization

Before long, we again discovered evidence of hacking into a medical-related organization, this time by Russian-speaking hackers. On one of the forums we monitor, a member tried to sell an SSH access to the server of an American company supplying equipment to 130 medical center in the U.S. He uploaded screenshots proving that he accessed the server where personal data of patients is stored.

The conclusions following these findings are concerning. An extensive trade in medical information and compromised workstations and servers is a common sight on underground illegal markets. This business generates hundreds of thousands, if not millions of dollars annually, ensuring its continuation as long as there are such high profits to those involved. Since the ramifications can be grave, the healthcare sector must take all necessary measures to protect their systems and data:

  1. Implement a strong password policy, because many hacks are a result of brute-force attack. Strong passwords and two-factor authentications to log into organizational systems should be the number one rule for medical organizations.
  2. Deploy suitable security systems.
  3. Instruct the employees to follow cyber security rules – choosing strong and unique passwords, spotting phishing email messages, avoiding clicking on links and downloading files from unknown sources, etc. Consider periodic training for employees on these issues to maintain high awareness and compliance with the rules.
  4. Use Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) – to keep up with the times regarding the current most prominent threats to your organization and industry.
  5. Keep all software updated.

#OpIsrael 2016 – Summary

This year, #OpIsrael hacktivists focused on defacing private websites, carrying out DDoS attacks and leaking databases. Hundreds of private Israeli websites were defaced, mostly by Fallaga and AnonGhost members. Various databases containing Israeli email addresses and credit cards were leaked, but the majority were recycled from previous campaigns.

The hacktivists attacks commenced on April 5, 2016, two days before the campaign was launched, with a massive DDoS attack against an Israeli company that provides cloud services. The fact that no one took responsibility for the attack, alongside the massive DDoS power invested, may indicate that threat actors with advanced technical abilities were responsible.

On April 7, 2016, approximately 2,650 Facebook users expressed their desire to participate in the campaign via anti-Israel Facebook event pages. There are several possible reasons for the low number of participants (compared for example to the 5,200 participants in #OpIsrael 2015). One reason might be disappointment in last year’s lack of significant achievements. Another reason could be the devotion of attention to other topics, such as the cyber campaign against the Islamic State (IS), in the wake of the recent terrorist attacks in Brussels. Moreover, it is possible that anti-Israel hacktivists have abandoned social media networks for other platforms, such as IRC and Telegram.

1
Number of participants in the #OpIsrael campaign since 2014

During the campaign, we detected many indications of the use of common DDoS tools, such as HOIC, and simple DDoS web platforms that do not require any prior technical knowledge in order to operate them. Most of the DDoS attacks were directed against Israeli government and financial websites. Hacktivists claimed they managed to take down two Israeli bank websites. While this could be true, the websites were up and operational again within a short time. In addition, there were no indications of the use of RATs or ransomware against Israeli targets.

2
Using common DDoS tools against an Israeli website

As mentioned previously, most of the leaked databases were recycled from previous campaigns. However, we noticed that almost all of the new leaked databases were stolen from the same source – an Israeli company that develop websites. Notably, during the 2014 #OpIsrael campaign, this company website appeared on a list of hacked websites.

There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the leakage of these databases, which raises many questions, since anti-Israel hacktivists typically publish their achievements on social media networks to promote the success of the campaign. Moreover, almost all of these databases were first leaked in the Darknet, but anti-Israel hacktivists do not use this platform at all. In addition, all of the data leakages were allegedly leaked by a hacker dubbed #IndoGhost, but there are no indications to suggest that this entity was involved in the #OpIsrael campaign or any other anti-Israel activity.

Finally, we detected several attempts to organize another anti-Israel campaign for May 7, 2016. As an example, we identified a post calling to hack Israeli government websites on this date. We estimate that these attempts will not succeed in organizing another anti-Israel cyber campaign.

Intelligence Review of #OpIsrael Cyber Campaign (April 7, 2015)

Starting at the end of last week, hacktivist groups from around the Muslim world tried to attack Israeli websites, particularly those of government institutions, as part of the #OpIsrael cyber campaign. In the past twenty-four hours they stepped up their activity, but we have seen no signs of major attacks. Despite all the publicity prior to the campaign, the hackers’ successes were limited to defacing several hundred private websites and leaking the email addresses of tens of thousands of Israelis, many of them recycled from previous campaigns. Several dozen credit card numbers were also leaked on information-sharing websites, but our examination shows that some were recycled from past leaks.

AnonGhost, which initiated the campaign, was the main actor behind it. However, other groups of hackers, such as Fallaga, MECA (Middle East Cyber Army), Anon.Official.org, and Indonesian and Algerian groups also participated in the attacks. As the campaign progressed, we saw an increasing number of posts and tweets about it (over 3,000), but this is still significantly less than last year, when there were tens of thousands.

As we noted in previous updates, the campaign was conducted primarily on social networks, especially Facebook and Twitter. IRC channels opened for the campaign were barely active, partly because hackers feared spying by “intelligence agents.” On closed forums and Darknet platforms, we saw no activity related to #OpIsrael.

Participants discuss why the campaign is smaller than in 2013
Participants discuss why the campaign is smaller than in 2013

Following is a summary of the main results of the attacks that we have identified so far:

  • Defacing of hundreds of websites. Victims included Meretz (an Israeli political party), various Israeli companies, sub-domains of institutions of higher education, municipalities, Israeli artists, and more.
  • Leaking of tens of thousands of email addresses and personal information of Israelis. A significant portion of the information was recycled from previous campaigns. Databases from third-party websites were also leaked. In addition, two files were leaked and according to the hackers, one had 30,000 email addresses and the other 150,000 records.
  • Publication of details from dozens of credit cards, some of them recycled.

How Hackers Use Social Media Networks to Put Your Organization at Risk

SenseCy’s teams monitor underground and password-protected forums and communities in many languages – Russian, Arabic, Persian, Chinese, Portuguese, English, and more. By gaining access to the Deep Web and Darknet, we identify suspicious activity and new hacker tools and enable our clients to mitigate or eliminate cyber threats.

Hacker communities on social networks continue to evolve. More and more communities are creating Twitter accounts as well as pages and groups in popular social networks such as Facebook and VKontakte (a Russian social network) to share information, tools, and experience.

In the past, hackers came together on social networks to hold operational discussions, share targets, and join forces for DDoS attacks, but less to upload or download hacking tools. Since this is changing, we are now monitoring hacking tools offered for download on Twitter, Facebook, and VKontakte.

Source code published on Twitter
Source code published on Twitter

These hacker communities can be classified into three main categories:

  1. Open public groups and accounts that make common, well-known tools available.

    Open Facebook group of well-known Arab hackers
    Open Facebook group of well-known Arab hackers
  2. Closed, secret groups sharing rare or sector-related tools or programs in a specific language.

    Secret Facebook group from Southeast Asia
    Secret Facebook group from Southeast Asia
  3. Groups sharing or even selling self-developed tools.
    Facebook post in closed Asian hacker group
    Facebook post in closed Asian hacker group

    A prominent example is the self-developed DDoS tool created by hacker group AnonGhost for the #OpIsrael cyber campaign, which is expected to take place on April 7, 2015. This tool uses three flooding methods, TCP, UDP, and HTTP and can operate through a proxy if needed. AnonGhost posted its new tool on its official Facebook page with a link to a tutorial on YouTube, and soon it was widely distributed among hacktivists through social media.

    From AnonGhost's official Facebook Page
    From AnonGhost’s official Facebook Page

    We regularly monitor trends and developments in social networks, since they are becoming the preferred platform for groups of hackers to share and improve attack tools. SenseCy also takes part in these communities, which gives us the edge in preventing attacks in real time. We continue to track new trends and developments to detect cyber threats for our clients.

HACKoDROID: An Increasing Tendency Toward Smartphone-Based Attacks

New Smartphone technologies have made our lives easier. At the touch of a button, you can call a cab, pay bills, connect with your friends and even reach your personal trainer. On the other hand, the world of hacking and cracking now also has a lot of useful tools to hack your system and steal your data, using a smartphone.

We have recently seen the development and publishing of hack applications for smartphones on underground forums. The wide range of such tools means that anybody can find a suitable tool for dubious purposes. The items available include a variety of DDoS tools, wireless crackers, sniffers, network spoofers and more.

HackForum Post
HackForum Post

Most tools are only available for Android smartphones, and many require root permissions. The most popular tool for cookie theft is DroidSheep. With the help of this tool, an attacker can collect all browsing data, including logins, passwords and more, merely by using the same Wi-Fi network as the victim.

Moreover, the attacker can connect to the victim’s password-protected Wi-Fi network. There are several Wi-Fi cracking tools, for example, WIBR+ uses uploaded password databases to identify passwords common to the victim’s network. The users can also upload and update these databases. Another tool – Wi-Fi Kill – is capable of shutting down any other device connected to the same network and can intercept pictures and webpages recently visited by users of this network.

More and more tools now include more than one hacking capability. The DSploit tool features such functions as password sniffers, cookie sniffers, browsing history sniffers, and webpage redirecting. Another program, Bugtroid, contains cracking and protection applications. The owner can choose the most suitable program from a list and install it in one click. The tool offers a variety of tools to suit almost every cracking purpose.

Sniffers and DDoS Tools
Sniffers and DDoS Tools

For iOS systems, there is a limited number of hacking tools, mostly in the realm of game cracking. Examples of such tools are GameGem and iGameGuardian. These tools break games for the purpose of stealing monetary units. The most common tool for iOS is Metasploit, which contains a number of useful applications for different fields.

The tools presented above are not new, but they represent the main capabilities in the field. We are seeing a growing tendency to use portable devices, such as smartphones and tablets, to conduct attacks in public places. Mobile devices and public Wi-Fi networks tend to be less protected and more vulnerable. With the help of collected data by mobile device, the attackers can perform more complex attacks via PC. As long as there is no protection awareness regarding mobile devices, we expected a continued increase in the number of smartphone-based attacks.

List of Hacking Tools
List of Hacking Tools

Latin America Battles Human Rights Online

Following centuries of struggle, Latin American countries succeeded in gaining independence in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries. Notwithstanding, it is a well-known fact that today there is no equal financial distribution between the different classes in Latin American society.

In an attempt to overcome these significant class differences and protect the lower classes in Latin American countries, many human rights groups were created. However, this post refers to very different groups that are fighting for their rights in a more modern way – from behind a computer screen.

Most of these groups have a very similar agenda and they know that the best way to succeed lies in garnering the assistance of hacktivists from all over the continent and even further afield.

Via the computer, they are calling out to the people to protest against government laws and restrictions. Take, for example, the case of #4octrodealadictadurawhere Anonymous exposes police brutality and violence against unarmed protesters.

Violent Clashes
Police arrests protestors
Protestors document the violence
Protestors document the violence

Their main activity is hacking and defacing important websites. Sometimes they even leak information from databases. Their targets are mostly webpages affiliated with the government, politicians and candidates, and large enterprises such as railroad companies, newspapers and local authorities.

Almost all of the groups identify with Anonymous. One of the more prominent of these groups is Anonymous Peru, which claims to be striving for a country with no corruption, and calls to protect the human and civil rights of the citizens of Peru. The group created #OpIndependenciaPeru  and claims to have attacked government websites on Peruvian Independence day on July 28, 2014. During this operation, they alleged that they leaked candidate information, defaced ISP in Argentina and hacked a Peruvian government website.

Anonymous Peru Twitter

Another notable group is MexicanH Team from Mexico. The group identifies with Anonymous Mexico and is very popular (with over 21,000 followers on Twitter). The group launched #OpTequilatargeting Mexico’s Independence Day on September 15, 2014. During the campaign, the group hacked the website of the presidency (using an XSS vulnerability). They also leaked government email addresses, usernames and passwords.

XSS vulnerability in the president website
Database leakage

The latest hacktivist group to capture attention is TeamHackArgentino. The goals of this group are to show that the government’s politics are as bad as the security of their websites, and to demonstrate the fact that they posted an archive of their attacks on two different websites.

TeamHackArgentino Twitter
TeamHackArgentino Twitter

In conclusion, all of these groups help each other to fight against their governments, in an effort to rouse them and make them aware of the unjust acts being perpetrated against the people of Latin America, especially the poor.

WhatsHack: WhatsApp in Cyberspace

WhatsApp Messenger is an instant messaging subscription service. In addition to text messaging, users can send each other images, video and audio media messages, as well as location data. As of September 2014, WhatsApp is the most popular global messaging app, with 600 million users. Aside from regular users, more underground communities like to use this application. WhatsApp activity is more complicated to monitor by a third party than regular phone messages and some online services. WhatsApp has proven to be a fast, reliable and inexpensive service for sharing various kinds of information.

The cyber underground is also seeking new platforms for chatting and sharing information. Lately, we have identified an increasing number of hacker-affiliated groups using WhatsApp services. These groups offer members chat services, hacking tips, cyberattack coordination and more. Members from numerous countries, including Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia and others, expose their phone numbers to connect to such groups.

Facebook hacktivist post
Facebook hacktivist post

There are several manuals describing how to access other WhatsApp accounts. One post shared two different methodologies to do just that: spoofing with the help of Mac number, and using spy software. This post received over 738,000 views over a two-week period.

WhatsApp hacking guide
WhatsApp hacking guide

In addition to spy methodology, you can find various tools, such as WhatsApp Hack Spy Tool, WhatsAppSniffer, WhatsApp Xtract, WhatsApp Conversation SPY Hack Tool and more. You can also use third party spyware. These tools can be used for Android, iPhone and BlackBerry devices. Tools provide such features as tracking all voice notes, viewing all user chat logs, updating profile pictures, sending messages to contacts, changing profile status and more, depending on the tool.

WhatsApp hacking tools
WhatsApp hacking tools

The dissemination of such tools is becoming common also on social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. A Facebook page titled “WhatsApp Hack Spy Tool” has 390 members, mostly from India, Italy, France and the U.S. This page also has a related Twitter account with more than 3,500 followers. Another Facebook page titled “WhatsApp Hack Sniffer Spy Tool” has over 13,500 members, mostly from Turkey and India. Furthermore, advertisement for the tool can also be found on LinkedIn.

LinkedIn advertisement for the tool
LinkedIn advertisement for the tool

In addition to the free tools, you can purchase more unique software, such as a tool for hacking WhatsApp, only ten copies of which were released for sale on the DarkNet for 0.0305 BTC.

The tool is sold on the DarkNet
The tool is sold on the DarkNet

The use of WhatsApp by hacktivist communities, together with the development of hacking tools and methodologies, has opened up a new platform for the cyber community. These two directions provide a fast, inexpensive and more secure way for hacktivists to interact, coordinate operations, and exchange information and mobile hacking techniques and data vulnerabilities.

#OpSaveGaza Campaign – Insights from the Recent Anti-Israel Cyber Operation

The #OpSaveGaza Campaign was officially launched on July 11, 2014, as a counter-reaction to operation “Protective Edge”. This is the third military operation against Hamas since the end of December 2008, when Israel waged operation “Cast Lead”, followed by operation “Pillar of Defense” in November 2012.

These military operations were accompanied by cyber campaigns emanating from pro-Palestinian hacker groups around the world. #OpSaveGaza was not the only recent cyber campaign against Israel, but it is the most organized, diverse and focused. During this campaign, hacker groups from Malaysia and Indonesia in the East to Tunisia and Morocco in the West have been participating in cyber attacks against Israel.

The Use of Social Networks

Hacktivist groups recruit large masses for their operations by means of social networks. Muslim hacker groups use mostly Facebook and Twitter to upload target lists, incite others to take part in cyberattacks and share attack tools.

The #OpSaveGaza campaign was planned and organized using these two social media platforms. The organizers of the campaign succeeded in recruiting tens of thousands of supporters to their anti-Israel ideology.

OpSaveGaza - Facebook Event

Attack Vectors

When examining the types of attacks perpetrated against Israeli cyber space, it appears that this campaign has been the most diverse in terms of attack vectors. It not only includes simple DDoS, defacement and data leakage attacks, but also phishing (even spear-phishing based on leaked databases), SMS spoofing and satellite hijacking (part of the Hamas psychological warfare), in addition to high-volume/high-frequency DDoS attacks.

Hackers targeting Israeli ISPs
Hackers targeting Israeli ISPs

Furthermore, these attacks have been much more focused as the attackers attempt to deface and knock offline governmental websites, defense contractors, banks and energy companies. Simultaneously, a large number of small and private websites were defaced (over 2,500) and several databases were leaked online.

Pro-Palestinian hackers defacing Israeli websites
Pro-Palestinian hackers defacing Israeli websites

Motivation and the Involvement of other Threat Actors

The motivation for waging cyberattacks against Israel during a military operation is clear. This is not the first time that a physical conflict has had implications on the cyber sphere. However, we believe that other factors are contributing to the cyber campaign. In July 2014, the Muslim world observed the month of Ramadan, a holy month in Muslim tradition. There are two significant dates in this month – “Laylat al-Qadr” (the Night of Destiny), the night the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the Prophet Muhammad; and “Quds Day” (Jerusalem Day), an annual event held on the last Friday of Ramadan and mentioned specifically by Iran and Hezbollah. We identified an increase in the number of attacks, as well as their quality, surrounding these dates.

Last year, several days before “Quds Day” a hacker group named Qods Freedom, suspected to be Iranian, launched a massive cyber operation against Israeli websites. In other words, we believe that not only hacktivist elements participated in this campaign but also cyber terrorism units and perhaps even state-sponsored groups from the Middle East.

The Islamic Cyber Resistance (ICR) leaking an internal database
The Islamic Cyber Resistance (ICR) leaking an internal database

To summarize, this campaign was far better organized than the recent cyber operations we experienced in 2009 and 2012 alongside physical conflicts with Hamas. We have seen changes in several aspects:

  • Improvement in attack tools and technical capabilities
  • Information-sharing between the groups (targets, attack tools, tutorials)
  • The involvement of hacker groups from Indonesia in the East and Morocco in the West.
  • Possible involvement of cyber terrorism groups
  • Well-managed psychological warfare and media campaign by the participating groups

The scope and manner in which this campaign was conducted shows improved capabilities of the perpetrators, which is in-line with Assaf Keren’s assessment of the evolution of hacktivist capabilities.