Understanding the Cyber Intelligence Ecosystem

Technology Evolution

The intelligence world has undergone dramatic change in recent years. The growth in traffic, online platforms, applications, devices and users has made the intelligence gathering process much more complex and challenging.

Today, each individual makes multiple simultaneous online appearances. We operate social media accounts, such as Facebook and Twitter (in Russia there is VK and Odnoklassniki and in China RenRen and QZone). We are also active on professional networks, such as LinkedIn. We participate in discussion groups and forums. We share pictures and videos via dedicated websites, and we process transactions by way of ecommerce sites, etc. This makes it much harder today to track the online footsteps of an individual and connect the dots between his diverse online representations, especially if he uses multiple aliases and email addresses.

Man versus Machine

In today’s virtual world, web-crawlers and automated collection tools have limitations. Don’t get me wrong – they are very important and we are dependent on automated tools in our daily work, but in some areas they simply cannot compete with a human analyst.

I will give you an example – in order to access a particular Russian closed hacking forum, you must write 100 posts, receive a recommendation from the administrator of the forum and finally, pay 50 dollars in Bitcoin. Such a task cannot be accomplished by a crawler or an automated tool. You must have an analyst that understands the relevant ecosystem and who is also familiar with the specific slang or lingo of the forum members. You must know that “Kaptoxa” (“Potato” in Russian) on a deep-web hacking forum does not really mean “Potato”, but rather refers to the BlackPOS – a Point-of-Sale (POS) malware used in the Target attack at the end of last year.

BlackPOS is offered for sale on a Russian closed hacking forum (February 2013)
BlackPOS is offered for sale on a Russian closed hacking forum (February 2013)

Cyber Activity Areas

If we take a look at the threat actors in the world of cyber security, we can roughly divide them into four categories: hacktivists (such as Anonymous-affiliated groups around the world); cyber terrorists (for example, the cyber unit of Hezbollah, and lately we have seen clear indications of al-Qaeda (AQ) attempts to develop a cyber unit within their organization).

Collaboration between Al-Qaeda and Tunisian hackers
Collaboration between Al-Qaeda and Tunisian hackers

A third category is cyber criminals (we have recently heard about cybercrime activities organized by groups in Ukraine, Eastern Europe, China and Latin America). The final category is governments, or state-sponsored groups (such as the Chinese PLA Unit 61398, also known as APT1, or the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Cyber Fighters, an Iranian hacker group that launched “Operation Ababil” two years ago against the American financial sector).

Today, it is clear that every industry or sector is a potential target for cyber attack, or, as the Director of the FBI said two years ago, “There are only two types of companies: those that have been hacked and those that will be.”

And indeed, we are witnessing attacks on media organizations, public records (and in recent months attacks against healthcare services, mainly for the purpose of extortion), academic institutions, banks, the energy sector, and, of course, government agencies.

These diverse threat actors use the Internet to chat, plan their attacks, publish target lists, and even upload and share attack tools. But where can we find them? They have different online platforms.

Unlike APT campaigns that have almost no online footprint, the strength of hacktivism is its capability to recruit large masses for its operations, using social networks. In recent hacktivist campaigns we have identified Facebook as a “Command and Control” (C&C) platform for the attackers, where they plan the operation, publish a target list and share attack tools.

OpFIFA 2014 Campaign
OpFIFA 2014 Campaign

Cyber terrorists are mostly active on closed, dedicated forums where you must login with a username and password after receiving admin approval. We have experience with such forums in Arabic, Persian and even Turkish.

Cyber criminals, on the other hand, can be found on Darknet platforms, where you need to use a special browser to gain access. They can also be found on password-protected forums that sometimes require an entrance fee, payable in Bitcoin or other crypto-currencies. On these platforms we can find sophisticated attack tools for sale, pieces of advanced code, zero-day exploits, stolen data dumps and more.

Silk Road - the infamous online market on Darknet
Silk Road – the infamous online market on Darknet

Regarding governments or state-sponsored groups, I do not believe that they chat online, and generally speaking they do not leave footprints on the Web. However, we occasionally uncover activities by nation-state actors, such as the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA) or Iranian-affiliated groups.

I would like to argue that in today’s world we must use traditional methods of intelligence gathering, specifically operating covert agents, or virtual spies, throughout the Web – in closed discussion rooms, on secret Facebook pages, in the deep-web and Darknet platforms – in order to obtain quality, relevant and real-time intelligence.

Iranian Hackurity – Hacking Group or Security Firm

In the past few years, the penchant of the Iranian regime for legitimizing hacking groups and their activities in Iran has become increasingly evident. While cooperation between the regime and certain hacking groups in Iran remains a non-declarative action by the Iranian government, the remarkable coordination between the two sides cannot be ignored. Examples of this alleged coordination is evidenced in several cases where Iranian hacker groups appear to act according to government interests. Two such examples were the subdual of Iranian hacker activities during the nuclear negotiations and the lull in attacks against banks during the Iranian presidential elections.

That said, it was not unexpected for Iran to become a fertile ground for numerous hacking groups, some more prominent than others.

This legitimacy and the free-hand policy have indirectly created an interesting trend in the Iranian cyber arena – rather than hiding and masking their activities, Iranian hackers or hacking groups are presenting themselves as security firms. This new ‘security firm’ disguise, ‘Hackurity’ if you will, may appear legitimate from the outside, but a review of the individuals supporting these firms or managing them, reveals a very different picture.

Such was the case in the Iranian DataCoders Security Team and cyber security firm.

Since it commenced activities in 2010, and especially throughout 2012-2013, this hacker group has repeatedly breached American and Israeli websites.

Defacement mirror by the Iranian DataCoders Security Team
Defacement mirror by the Iranian DataCoders Security Team

Additional examples revealed the possibility that the group is also operating under an Arab alias.

At the beginning of August 2013, an unknown hacker group calling itself Qods Freedom claimed to have waged several high-volume cyber-attacks against official Israeli websites and banks. In their Facebook account, they presented themselves as Palestinians hackers from Gaza. Taking into consideration Palestinian hacker capabilities, as well as an examination of the defacement signature left by ‘Qods Freedom’ has led us to believe that the group has connections with Iran. One of the Iranian groups that used the same signature on the exact same day was the Iranian DataCoders Security Team.

It appears that the Iranian DataCoders is going to a lot of trouble to maintain its legitimacy as a new security firm, rather than sticking to its former title as a hacker group.

The group’s new web platform – DataCoders.org
The group’s new web platform – DataCoders.org

Another hacker group recently caught in the spotlight is the Ajax Security Team (AjaxTM). As in the first case, with its misleading decline in defacement activity, AjaxTM started to run a new platform – a security firm by the name of Pars-Security (Persian: شرکت امنیتی پارس پردازش حافظ).

According to a list posted in 2012 on an Iranian computer blog, the group is ranked among the top three Iranian hacker groups at that time, and is mostly active in the fields of training, security, penetration testing, and network exploits and vulnerabilities.

The group leader is Ali Alipour, aka Cair3x, who operates an active blog, where he describes himself as “Head of the Ajax Security Team.” Alipour is a former member of one of the oldest and most prominent hacker groups in Iran – “Ashiyane Digital Security Team” – and is accredited with perpetrating some of the exploits and defacements by the group. He was also listed on several forums as “one of Iran’s most terrible hackers“.

‘Pars-Security’ provides various services to the private and business sectors, including penetration testing, security and web programming. One of their most popular products is a technical guide entitled “Configuration and Server Security Package,” produced in cooperation with AjaxTM.

The company CEO is the AjaxTM leader – Ali Alipour – and the contact details on the Pars-Security website are his.

Pars-security.com contact details
Pars-security.com contact details

Although the ‘About us’ section on the site discloses that the company enjoys the support of the AjaxTM members, there is good reason to believe that the company is actually run by the Ajax Security Team themselves.

Another example of the tight relations between the ‘formats’ of Iranian hacker groups and security firms is the Mihan Hack Security Team. Since 2013, this group’s forum has been inactive, and was probably disabled by the group itself. With its forum and old website down, Mihan Hack has begun to reposition itself as a legitimate security firm.

Mihan Hack Security Team Website
Mihan Hack Security Team Website

The above-mentioned groups are just an example of the ‘hackurity groups’ trend in Iran. Our monitoring of the Iranian cyber arena has revealed more and more hacker groups once renowned for their defacement activities and hacking tool development, who have started to position themselves as ‘white hat’ security advisors and small Information Security (IS) consulting companies. The idea of active hackers supporting security firms and providing security services is not new, but is especially intriguing in Iran. The ‘former’ hacker groups that might be government-affiliated or supported are opening their own security firms rather than supporting existing firms and promoting self-developed products.

This action, accompanied by a decline in the declared activities of the group can divert attention from undercover activities and allows the group to operate more freely – a valuable resource for any hacker group, especially an Iranian one, due to the ever-growing global interest in Iran’s cyber activity.

Qods Freedom Hacker Group – Possible Iranian Involvement in Cyber Activity against Israel

In late July and early August 2013, a Gaza-based hacker group named “Qods Freedom” launched a cyber-operation against Israeli websites. The attack comprised distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, website defacements and attempted bank account breaches.

"Qods Freedom" Facebook page
“Qods Freedom” Facebook page

The DDoS-affected sites were Israel Railways, El Al (Israel’s national airline) and a leading daily newspaper. The attacks were all effective, topping at about 3.2 Gb/sec, rendering the sites inaccessible for many hours.

Screenshot posted by the group showing El Al site down due to their attack
Screenshot posted by the group showing El Al site down due to their attack

The group defaced over 600 sites, most of them related to two hosting service providers (likely to have been compromised). The defacement messages suggest that the motivation for the attack was to commemorate “Quds Day” – the last Friday of Ramadan.The group did not attempt to conceal its actions. Quite the contrary – it has an official Facebook page and Imageshack account where it posted images purportedly depicting the breach of Israeli bank accounts.

The political affiliation of the groups seems very clear – hardcore Palestinian, anti-Israeli. This was also evident from pictures they posted on the defaced sites that included images of the Dome of the Rock, the Palestinian flag, footage of protesters skirmishing with IDF soldiers and a portrait of Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah and a quote from his famous “Spider Web” speech, which he delivered in southern Lebanon in 2000 (where he predicted that Israel would break apart like spider webs in the slightest wind).

The group's defacement signature quoting Nasrallah with a typo
The group’s defacement signature quoting Nasrallah with a typo

After the attack subsided, SenseCy cyber intelligence analysts decided to take a closer look at the actions of this so-called Palestinian group. Gilad Zahavi, Director of Cyber Intelligence, recounted: “Something just didn’t add up. We were seeing many indications that this group was not what it portrayed itself to be, so we decided to dig deeper.”Using virtual entities (some of which have been in operation for some time, and are used to collect information on the vibrant hacking scene in Gaza), they started sniffing around on Palestinian forums and social media groups, but no-one seemed to know much about this group. With little else to do, the team looked again at the “signature” the group left after defacing one website. And there it was – a very uncharacteristic typo in the transcript of Nasrallah’s famous speech, one that no native Arab speaker would make. This raised suspicions that this group might not be Arab at all. A closer look at the font used to type the message confirmed that it originated from a Farsi-language keyboard.

Focusing on the Iranian connection, the team uncovered several other indications of the true origins of the group. For starters, “Quds Day” is mostly celebrated by the Iranian government and Hezbollah, not by Palestinian Sunnis. Secondly, the only references to these attacks (anywhere in the Muslim world) have come from the Iranian media. Two additional Iranian groups, “Iranian Data Coders” and Persian Flag Guards” use the same defacement signature, indicating at least some affiliation to Iranian cyber groups. The last telltale sign was that Iranian hacker groups often choose to masquerade as Arab hackers, choosing Arabic instead of Farsi names. A notable example is the “Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Cyber Fighters”, perceived to be linked to the Palestinian Hamas organization, but in fact operated by the Iranian regime.

So there you have it – an Iranian group with high technical capabilities, masquerading as a Palestinian group and attacking Israeli sites. This scheme was uncovered not by fancy computer forensics, but by good old-fashioned intelligence work, built on linguistic and cultural expertise, combined with a deep understanding of the cyber domain and intimate knowledge of the Middle East hacking scene.

Ukraine versus Russia in a Cyber-Duel

The eyes of the world are trained on events unfolding between Russia and the Ukraine these days – partly curious, partly concerned, with others directly supportive of one of the sides, either through actions or by disseminating the agenda they believe in. Everyone understands that this conflict (or should we already use the term “war”?), may have a huge impact on the balance of power in Eastern Europe, and further afield. For the time being, we can only assume what Russia’s true goals are in this conflict and to what extent it can deteriorate. But one thing is already clear – this is a confrontation not only in the battlefield, with tanks and guns, but also in cyberspace, where the weapons are site defacements, data leaks and damage to the networks of financial and critical infrastructures. And it is not so obvious which of them is the more merciless and destructive…

This is not the first time that Russia has resorted to cyber-attacks against her enemies. April 2007 is still burned into the collective memory of Estonia, when thousands of sites belonging to Estonian organizations came under cyber-attack over a three-week period, which withheld many essential services from the general public.

Another conflict that served as a background to numerous cyber-attacks was the Russia–Georgia war in 2008. South Ossetian, Russian, Georgian, and Azerbaijani informational and governmental websites were hacked, resulting in defacements with political messages and denial of service to numerous websites. It was not clear whether the attack was an organized, government supported warfare or a riot of individuals and groups touting pro-Russian views.

The current confrontation in the Crimean Peninsula has only been underway for a few days, but it is already widely backed by supporters from both sides in cyberspace. Many websites with Russian and Ukrainian URLs have already been hacked and #OpUkraine and #OpRussia campaigns launched on social networks, mainly VK, Odnoklassniki and Facebook.

The Ukranians, imbued with patriotic feelings, are trying to hack Russian sites and leak data. The Ukranian site Bimba, which calls itself the “cyber weapon of the Maidan revolution,” announced its recruitment of cyber volunteers wishing to work for the benefit of the Ukraine.

Defacement of Russian Sites by Anonymous Ukraine
Recruitment of cyber volunteers on anti-Russian site

The VK group #опПокращення // #OpUkraine, identified with Anonymous, uploaded a paste to the pastebin.com site, containing an anti-Russian message and a link to a download of an internal SQL data from Crownservice.ru (publishes tenders for governmental jobs), in a file called Putin Smack Down Saturday.

Other hacker groups in the Ukraine hacked regime websites, in expression of their support for the revolution. In general, a large number of internal cyberattacks among the different Ukrainian groups have been executed since the clashes began at the end of 2013. One of the more prominent was the hacking of the email of Ukraine opposition leader, Vitali Klitschko.

Russia tried to get even, although in a less obvious manner. Starting February 28, reports about cyberattacks in the Crimean Peninsula were published by some sources. Local communication companies experienced problems in their work that may have been caused by cyberattacks, as well as landline and Internet services. Moreover, Russia’s Internet monitoring agency (Roskomnadzor) has blocked Internet pages linked to the Ukraine protest movement.

Aside from Russians and Ukrainians, this conflict has attracted hackers from other countries, and we have already seen Turkish, Tunisian, Albanian and Palestinian hacker groups attacking Russian sites in support of the Ukrainian revolution.

Turkish hackers teams join in hacking Russian and Ukrainian sites
Anonymous Gaza hack Russian websites

At the time of writing, news sites have reported two more attacks on Russian sites by Ukrainian activists. This is a surprising, dynamic duel, and cyberspace is likely the stage upon which it will be played out.

Hacking as an Artistic Expression

Hackers are creative people. Everybody knows that. They have to be technically creative in order to outsmart security mechanisms, perform their antics and get away without being caught (sometimes).
But artistic creativity? Not the first thing we associate with hacking. However, after witnessing their creative works of art, we felt compelled to share these with you.
So you are welcome to enjoy the works of the “Russian classical painters”, the “surrealist hacktivists designers” and the “Iranian masters”:

A Russian hacking forum
A Russian hacking forum
Portal of Russian hackers
Portal of Russian hackers
Another Russian hacking forum
Another Russian hacking forum
A carding shop
A carding shop
#OpUSA (May 7, 2013)
#OpUSA (May 7, 2013)
#OpPetrol (June 20, 2013)
#OpPetrol (June 20, 2013)
#OpEgypt
#OpEgypt
Iranian Cyber Army (ICA)
Iranian Cyber Army (ICA)
Ashiyane Digital Security Team (ADST)
Ashiyane Digital Security Team (ADST)

Targeting SCADA Systems

Introduction

Recent years have witnessed an increased awareness within the worldwide security community of risks related to cyber attacks against critical infrastructures. ICS/SCADA systems have been a particular cause of concern for the security community, owing to Stuxnet, Flame and other cyber threats. As automation continues to evolve and assumes a more important role worldwide, the use of ICS/SCADA systems is likely to increase accordingly.

In this post I would like to present an analysis of several cyber incidents pertaining to ICS/SCADA systems and originating from threat elements in the Middle East.

Iranian Hacker Group Implicates itself in Physical Attack on Electric Power Facility

On January 2, 2014, the Cryptome.org website (a digital library host) published a message from the Iranian hacker group Parastoo, directed at the American authorities. The message headline connects the group to a “military-style” attack on an electric power station, the PG&E Metcalf substation, in California, U.S.A. on April 16, 2013. The connection to the Iranian group is unclear, despite the fact that Parastoo has mentioned that it has been testing national critical infrastructures using cyber vectors.

Cryptome message
Cryptome message

On April 16, 2013, an undetermined number of individuals breached the PG&E Metcalf power substation in California and cut the fiber-optic cables in the area around the station. The act neutralized some local 911 services and temporarily disrupted cell phone service in the area. The perpetrators also fired shots from high-powered rifles at several transformers in the facility. Ten were damaged and several others shut down.

It should be noted that there have been several attacks against different infrastructure facilities in the U.S. in the past year, such as the Arkansas power grid. Furthermore, officials conceded that the electric power industry is focusing on the threat of cyber attacks.

About Parastoo

The Iranian hacker group Parastoo first emerged on November 25, 2012, when they posted a message announcing they hacked into the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and leaked personal details of its officials. In February 2013, Parastoo claimed to have stolen nuclear information, credit card information, and the personal identities of thousands of customers, including individuals associated with the U.S. military, that work with IHS Inc., a global information and analytics provider.

The Syrian Electronic Army Hacks into Israeli SCADA Systems

On May 6, 2013 the cryptome.org website reported a successful attack by the “Syrian Electronic Army” (SEA) on a strategic Israel infrastructure system in Haifa. In an email sent to the website, the attack was declared to be a warning to decision-makers in Israel, evoking alleged Israeli Air Force (IAF) attacks on Syrian territory at the beginning of May 2013. The claim of responsibility for the attack was accompanied by a .pdf file with screenshots substantiating the cyber attack.

Examination of the screenshots proved that the attack was authentic, but was not aimed at a Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) like the municipal water SCADA system in Haifa. Our research did, however, reveal that the attackers had targeted the irrigation control system of Kibbutz Sa’ar, near Nahariya. Control of this system would present the hacker with numerous capabilities, among which is the destruction of the agricultural yield.

Screenshot from the PDF released by the attackers
Screenshot from the PDF released by the attackers

We also noticed that the time shown on the screenshot indicated the end of April 2012. It is possible that the system clock was incorrectly set, but it is more likely that the system was breached a year ago and the published “Retaliatory Strike” was retained as a contingency plan for exactly such an attack by Israel.

The Syrian Electronic Army posted a denial via its Twitter account, where it stated that it was not behind the attack. On other occasions, this Twitter account has been used as a platform for claims of responsibility, but with this incident, the above attack is not mentioned, neither here nor on the group’s official website or forums (apart from the denial). It should be noted that there are numerous examples of fictitious claims of responsibility intended to deflect identification of the attacker MO (Modus Operandi) of state-sponsored hacker groups.

SEA denial on their Twitter account
SEA denial on their Twitter account

This incidence is another link in a chain of events demonstrating an impressive ability to locate and exploit SCADA systems that appear to be susceptible to the Muslim hackers’ skills. However, in our view, this event is unprecedented. For the first time in public, a critical computerized infrastructure facility on Israeli soil has been attacked, and it is extremely likely that a sovereign state is behind the attack, declaring outright war in the cyber arena and deviating from the intelligence-gathering plateau.

Jihadist Cyber Terror Group to Target SCADA Systems

On June 11, 2011, a prominent Web Jihadist from the Shumukh al-Islam forum, Yaman Mukhaddab, launched a campaign to recruit male and female volunteers for a new Electronic Jihad group. The campaign, which takes place over the thread itself, begins with a clear definition of the group’s tasks and priorities. Mukhaddab says:

Simply put, it is a cyber-terror base, for launching electronic terror attacks on major infidel powers, specifically the U.S., the U.K. and France, no others. This base is not going to attack, for instance, the sites of Shi’a, Christians, apostates, slanderers, liar sites and forums or anything else. I repeat: it will only target the U.S., the U.K. and France.

Mukhaddab goes on to list the main targets for future attacks. SCADA systems are ranked as a top priority target, in order to “destroy power, water and gas supply lines, airports, railway stations, underground train stations, as well as central command and control systems” in these three countries. The second priority includes control systems of general financial sites, such as central savings organizations, stock markets and major banks. Third on the group’s agenda are websites and databases of major corporations dominating the economies of these countries, while fourth and last are less specified “public sites affecting the daily routine of citizens, in order to maximize the terror effects on the population”.

Mukhaddab details the desired skills of anyone wishing to join the group, including: thorough understanding of SCADA systems, preferably with experience in hacking them; acquaintance with writing hacking programs and scripts, and programming in C, C+ and C++ languages; expertise in networks, communication protocols and various kinds of routers and firewalls, specifically mentioning CISCO; Expertise in Linux or Unix operating systems; expertise in Windows operating system; capability of detecting security vulnerabilities; acquaintance with hacker websites, capability of entering them easily, searching for required scripts, tools, or software, and providing them to fellow members, if asked to; complete mastery of English or French scientific language, and scientific background in computer engineering; mastery of the Russian language; and mastery of the Chinese language. Members who want to volunteer are asked to post a response in the thread, specifying the categories that fit their capabilities.

To date, close to a hundred volunteers have already signed on to Mukhaddab’s Electronic Jihad group. We have yet to see indications that this newly formed group has started to engage in online hacking activity, but given the enthusiasm it created among forum members, this is likely to occur in the near future.

Related Posts:


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Cyber Threats to a Bank – Part 1: Cybercriminals Target Financial Institutions November 27, 2014 by Tanya Koyfman

AnonGhost Targets Universities around the World December 4, 2014 by CyInfo

Cyber Criminals “TARGET” Point of Sale Devices  January 15, 2014 by assafkeren

Who Are The Islamic Cyber Resistance?

On January 7, 2014, a relatively new hacker group calling itself the Islamic Cyber Resistance (ICR) claimed they had accessed the Local Area Network (LAN) of the Israel Airports Authority (IAA) and leaked sensitive information regarding domestic and international flight maps.

According to the group, they accessed flight management plans and the ATIS/VOLMET system (Automatic Terminal Information Service), where they could have manipulated data communications, such as flight routing and weather conditions.

The ICR has leaked a great amount of data, most of which is not up-to-date. Our analysis additionally revealed that the leaked data does not originate from the IAA local network, but either from its open and public network or from a different server that contains such information.

Nonetheless, it appears that this group may pose a threat to Western entities, as well as non-Shi’a, and I will explain.

ICR executed their first act on February 25, 2013, when the group leaked the personal details of Bahraini intelligence and high-ranking military personnel. This was accompanied by an image demonstrating the group’s support of Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah.

The attached image
The attached image

On August 10, 2013, the ICR and the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA), a pro-Assad hacker group, hacked a Kuwait mobile operator (Zain Group) and leaked information that included passwords.

On October 22, 2013, the ICR leaked the email addresses of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It should be noted that information regarding the IAEA was also leaked in 2012 by the Iranian hacker group Parastoo.

On December 16, 2013, the ICR leaked personal details of 2,014 Israelis affiliated with various security bodies as well as secret documents from the Saudi BinLadin Group (SBG) and Saudi Arabian security officials. They stated that this attack was the group’s revenge for the assassination of Hezbollah Commander Hassan al-Lakkis on December 4, 2013.

Image of SBG document that ICR hackers gained access to
Image of SBG document that ICR hackers gained access to

According to the semi-official Iranian Fars News Agency, the group has declared that it is not affiliated with Hezbollah. However, the cyber-attack coined “Remember Hassan Lakkis Operation” and the image of Hassan Nasrallah attached to one of the leaks indicates a connection between the group and Hezbollah, or at least the group’s support for the organization.

Moreover, the name of the group in English is the same as one of the names for Hezbollah (Al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya – “Islamic Resistance”). Additionally, a news report in Persian about the ICR attached an image labeled “HizbullahCyber”, another indication of a possible connection between the ICR and Hezbollah.

Hizbullah_Cyber

The ICR has no Facebook or Twitter accounts. However, it seems that wikileak.ir is the main platform for their leaks. Additionally, the Twitter account @quickleak.org often tweets about the group’s operations and should therefore be considered a good source of information about the group’s activity.